This is an internal documentation. There is a good chance you’re looking for something else. See Disclaimer.


For every piece of java code that is written using the tocco framework a unit test should be written.

We usually use the following technologies:


Please find a more comprehensive documentation of what TestNG does and how it works on the official website. In this documentation some of the most common features of TestNG that are used when creating unit tests in the tocco framework are described.

Common annotations

  • @BeforeClass: The annotated method will be run before the first test method in the current class is invoked.

  • @AfterClass: The annotated method will be run after all the test methods in the current class have been run.

  • @BeforeMethod: The annotated method will be run before each test method.

  • @AfterMethod: The annotated method will be run after each test method.

  • @Test: Marks a class or a method as part of the test.


DataProviders can be used to create parameterized tests using TestNG. To make this work, the annotation parameter dataProvider can be added to the @Test annotation. The data that is passed to a parameterized test can then be defined in a corresponding @DataProvider. To link a @DataProvider implicitly to a given unit test, the method name must be equal to the dataProvider parameter value.


@Test(dataProvider = "testDataProvider")
public void test() { }

public Object[][] testDataProvider { }

If the method name does not match it can be set explicitly as a parameter of the @DataProvider method. Please find a working real life example of a simple unit test with its corresponding @DataProvider.

@Test(dataProvider = "fileNameDataProvider")
public void testNormalizeFilename(String raw, String normalized) {
    String normalizedFilename = PathNormalizer.normalizeFilename(raw);
    assertEquals(normalizedFilename, normalized);

public Object[][] getFileNames() {
    return new Object[][]{
        {"Question mark?.doc", "Question mark.doc"},
        {"<Technical brackets>.doc", "Technical brackets.doc"},
        {"Asteri*sk.doc", "Asterisk.doc"},
        {"Col:on.doc", "Colon.doc"}

DataProvider methods are executed when preparing the unit test execution and before the fake datamodel / fake database are setup. This implies that it is not possible to pass parts of the datamodel or entities as parameters to unit tests.


Please find a more comprehensive documentation of what EasyMock does and how it works on the official website. In this documentation some of the most common features of EasyMock that are used when creating unit tests in the tocco framework are described.

Types of mocks

  • mock an object for which each method call and its return values need to be predefined

  • dummy an object that works similar to a mock but it accepts all method calls and returns null values if nothing else is defined.

  • stubs an object that returns the same value whenever a method is called. In EasyMock “stub” methods can be defined for mocks as well as dummies.

Lifecycle of EasyMock mocks

EasyMock mock objects follow a simple four step lifecycle as described below. (Source: EasyMock Lifecycle Description)

  • Create Mock This phase creates the mock object.

  • Expect This phase records the expected behaviors of the mock object. These will be verified at the end.

  • Replay Replays the previously recorded expectations.

  • Verify In order for a test to pass, the expected behaviors must have been executed. The verify phase confirms the execution of the expected calls.

Creating a mock

There are different methods to create EasyMock mock objects. When using the EasyTestCase the specific setupMock must be used if the mock object should be replayed / verified automatically by the EasyTestCase.

//use setup mock of EasyTestCase
Test testMock1 = setupMock(Test.class);

//direct mock creation
Test testMock2 = EasyMock.createMock(Test.class); //create a "normal" mock using static method
Test testDummy1 = EasyMock.createNiceMock(Test.class); //create a dummy using static method

//using controls
IMocksControl control = EasyMock.createControl(); //create normal mock control
Test testMock4 = control.createMock(Test.class);

IMocksControl control = EasyMock.createNiceControl() //create dummy control
Test testDummy2 = control.createMock(Test.class);


Recording expected behaviour consists of multiple can be done by using expect for functions or expectLastCall for methods (functions without return value).


Use the sameKey matcher for entity or primary key arguments:


For both methods and functions you can define how often a given call is expected to be called using the following methods:

  • once() exactly once (default if nothing is specified)

  • times(n) exactly n times

  • times(min, max) between min and max times

  • atLeastOnce() between 1 and n times

  • anyTimes() between 0 and n times

To define a fake behaviour the following methods can be used:

  • andReturn return a static value (only works for functions)

  • andAnswer execute a function when the method was called as expected and compute the return value

  • andThrow throw an exception if the method was called as defined

If you want to turn your mock object into a stub the following methods can be used.

  • andStubReturn return a static value (only works for functions)

  • andStubAnswer execute a function when the method was called as expected and compute the return value

  • andStubThrow throw an exception if the method was called as defined

  • asStub do nothing (only works for methods)

public interface Test {
    String function(String param);
    String function(String param1, Integer param2);
    void method(String param);
    void method(Integer param);
//use static import
import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;

//create mock
Test testMock = setupMock(Test.class);

//record expected behaviour

//when "function" is called with param "test" it will return "return value"
expect(testMock.function("test")).andReturn("return value");

//when "function" is called with any other param it will return the string
//that was passed as parameter
expect(testMock.function(anyObject())).atLeastOnce().andAnswer(() -> {
   String param = (String) getCurrentArguments()[0];
   return param;

//when "function" is called with param1 = "test" and any integer as param2
//it will return "string integer rv". to mix "fixed" values and wildcards
//or captures "eq" must be used
expect(testMock.function(eq("test"), anyObject())).andReturn("string integer rv").times(2, 4);

//define that "method" will be called with a string once

//define that the mock should throw an illegal argument exception whenever "bad string" is passed to it
testMock.method("bad string");
expectLastCall().andStubThrow(new IllegalArgumentException("bad string was used"));

//define that "method" will be called with an integer twice


Captures can be used to capture values that were passed to a mock object to check them later.

When creating a capture the CaptureType can be defined:

  • NONE do not capture anything

  • LAST default behaviour. will capture the argument of the last matching call

  • FIRST will capture the argument of the first matching call

  • ALL will capture, in order, the arguments of each matching calls

To get the captured values getValue (for single values) or getValues (for multiple values) can be used.

public interface Test {
    String function(String param);
    String function(String param1, Integer param2);
    void method(String param);
    void method(Integer param);
//use static imports
import static*;
import static org.easymock.EasyMock.*;

//create capture
Capture<String> stringCapture = newCapture(CaptureType.ALL);

//create mock
Test testMock = setupMock(Test.class);

//expect method call with capture

//EasyTestCase will ready the mocks for us
runLogicWithoutReturn(service -> {

//list contains "test1", "test2"
List<String> passedStrings = stringCapture.getValues();
assertThat(passedStrings).containsExactly("test1", "test2");

Replay / Verify / Reset

To replay a mock you can simply call control.replay() / control.verify() / control.reset() on the control or EasyMock.replay(mock1, mock2, ...) / EasyMock.verify(mock1, mock2, ...) / EasyMock.reset(mock1, mock2, ...) for “independent” mock objects.

These steps are automated / built in if you use an EasyTestCase test class and its setupMock method.

Test testMock1 = createMock(Test.class); //independent

IMocksControl control = EasyMock.createControl(); //mock control
Test testMock2 = control.createMock(Test.class);

// ... define expectations here

EasyMock.replay(testMock1); //replay testMock1
control.replay(); //replay all mocks of control

// ... use your mocks / call your logic here

// verify the mocks, this could be done in an @AfterMethod method

// reset the mocks, this is only required if a mock object is defined
// globally and used by multiple tests. This could be done in a @BeforeMethod method

Tocco Specific Test Classes

There are some abstract classes that may be used to conveniently emulate parts of the tocco framework in unit tests. Among other things these classes may be used to setup a simplified datamodel that works with a real database to grant the ability to test code that accesses or writes data.



EasyTestCase and its derivatives are recommended over direct AbstractInjectingTestCase usage. As all other described tocco specific test classes extend the AbstractInjectingTestCase, the features described here apply to them as well.

The AbstractInjectingTestCase is the base class that is used by all other classes. It provides a method setupTestModules that must be overridden and contains all modules that are required for a unit test and may contain additional bindings using the bind methods.

All installed or bound services may be injected into the unit test using the @Resource annotation.

Please find below some example code of how these bindings may be used.

public class Test {
    private Context context;
    private QueryBuilderFactory queryBuilderFactory;
    private ConditionBuilder conditionBuilder;
    private TextResources textResources;

    protected void setupTestModules() {
        //standard embedded db module that installs db related services (e.g. Context or QueryBuilderFactory)

        bind(ConditionBuilder.class, ConditionBuilderImpl.class); //bind a real impl class
        bindInstance(TextResources.class, setupTextResources()); //bind a mock object

    private TextResources setupTextResources() {
        TextResources textResources = createNiceMock(TextResources.class);
        return textResources;


The EasyTestCase is the base class of all the following “EasyXXTestCase” classes. The base class should be used if no other implementation fits (e.g. for Services, …).

EasyTestCases provide the following features:

  • context and executor are injected in the base class and may be used in all subclasses

  • simplification of the unit-test procedure

  • automated mock handling

  • automated lookup value creation

  • simplified way to create entities

To create an EasyTestCase you must define a DataModel and a method that instantiates the class to test.

public class TestServiceTest extends EasyTestCase<TestService> {
    private QueryBuilderFactory queryBuilderFactory;

    private TextResources textResources = setupMock(TextResources.class); //"global" mock object

    protected Class<? extends DataModel> defineDataModel() {
        return TestDataModel.class;

    protected TestService instantiateClassToTest() {
        return new TestServiceImpl(context, queryBuilderFactory, textResources);

    private static final class TestDataModel extends AbstractDataModel {
        protected TestDataModel(TypeManager typeManager, L10N l10n) {
            super(typeManager, l10n);



If no datamodel is needed, the EmptyDataModel of the EasyTestCase can be used.

Everything that is needed to instantiate the class (all constructor params) must be available in this method. They can either be injected or globally defined as mock objects.


Unit-Tests tend to follow the following steps:

  1. prepare data & mock objects

  2. ready mocks & instantiate class that will be tested

  3. call the method that we want to test

  4. verify the results

To simplify this the EasyTestCase offers the following methods:

  • runLogic runs a callable and returns its return value

  • runLogicWithoutReturn runs a callable and discards the return value

  • runLogicInTransaction runs a callable in a transaction and returns its return value

public void testFunction() {
    //prepare test
    Entity entity = createEntity("Test");

    //ready mocks & instantiate class & run the test itself
    String returnValue = runLogic(service -> service.function(entity));

    //check the result

public void testMethod() {
    //prepare test
    Entity entity = createEntity("Test");

    //ready mocks & instantiate class & run the test itself
    runLogicWithoutReturn(service -> service.method(entity));

    //check the result


If you need a mock object, the setupMock method should be used. Mock objects that are created using setupMock are managed by the built in IMocksControl, automatically reset @BeforeMethod, automatically replayed before the class to test is instantiated and verified in @AfterMethod.

Creating Lookup-Values

Lookup Entities will be automatically created if they are created inside of NoArgPersistTask tasks that are returned by the getLookupTasks method as seen in the example below.

public class TestServiceTest extends EasyTestCase<TestService> {
    // ...

    protected List<PersistTask<Void, ?>> getLookupTasks() {
        return List.of(TestDataModel.getTestStatusTask());

    // ...

    private static final class TestDataModel extends AbstractDataModel {
        protected TestDataModel(TypeManager typeManager, L10N l10n) {
            super(typeManager, l10n);
            // ...
            EntityModelMock testStatus = lookupEntityModel("Test_status");
            // ...

        public static NoArgPersistTask<Multimap<String, Entity>> getTestStatusTask() {
            return getTaskToAddLookupValues("Test_status", "active", "archived");

Creating Entities

EasyTestCases provide a method createEntity that creates an entity inside a transaction. It can either be used with just the EntityModel-name as parameter or with a function that gets an EntityBuilder as parameter and should return an EntityBuilder aswell.

public class TestServiceTest extends EasyTestCase<TestService> {
    // ...
    public void test() {
        Entity simpleEntity = createEntity("Simple_entity"); //creates an entity without seting any values

        //create an entity with an ``EntityBuilder``
        createEntity("Test", builder -> builder
            .field("test_field", "test_value")
            .setRelatedLookupValue("relTest_status", "active")
            .setRelatedEntity("relSimple_entity", simpleEntity));
        // ...
    // ...

The EntityBuilder can be used without the createEntity method but it requires manual transaction management if you decide to do so.

Using binaries

To use binaries in your test, override createNiceBinaryTable to return true. Inject BinaryFactory into your test to create binaries. If you need to send entities with binary fields through REST, be sure to include the RestEntityModules.main() module in your test, otherwise they will not be able to be converted.


See Batchjob Testing section.


The EasyListenerTestCase adds the function runWithRegisteredListener to the EasyTestCase this method runs logic inside a transaction for which the listener under test is registered.

public class TestListenerTest extends EasyListenerTestCase<TestListener> {
    // ...
    public void testListener() {
        //create entity without listener
        Entity testEntityWithoutListener = createEntity("Test");

        //ready mocks & create entity with listener
        Entity testEntityWithListener = runWithRegisteredListener("Test", () -> createEntity("Test"));

        //evaluate results

        //check if listener set the Test_status
        Entity listenerStatus = testEntityWithListener.getRelatedEntityOrNull("relTest_status");
    // ...


The EasyValidatorTestCase extends the EasyTestCase by adding the methods runValidationExpectValid and runValidationExpectInvalid. These methods are not run in a transaction. They allow to check if a validator deems an entity valid or not and if not, it allows checking the error message. This method can be called inside of a transaction if you want to check an entity that is still in conception state.

public class SameTeamValidatorTest extends EasyValidatorTestCase<SameTeamValidator> {
    // ...
    public void testDifferentTeams() {
        Entity homeTeam = createEntity("Team");
        Entity guestTeam = createEntity("Team");

        Entity game = createEntity("Game", builder -> builder
            .setRelatedEntity("relHome_team", homeTeam)
            .setRelatedEntity("relGuest_team", guestTeam));


    public void testSameTeam() {
        Entity team = createEntity("Team");

        context.tx().invokeRTE(() -> {
            Entity game = createEntity("Game", builder -> builder
                .setRelatedEntity("relHome_team", team)
                .setRelatedEntity("relGuest_team", team));

            runValidationExpectInvalid(game, "validation.GameSameTeamValidator.error_message");
            return null;
    // ...


The AbstractInjectingJerseyTestCase is an abstract test class that sets up a web server for test purposes. It allows writing unit tests for REST resources that test for a real http response (e.g. headers, status, content, …)

To make it work, you need to define the REST resources under test as instantiated return value of getRestResources().

In unit tests these rest resources may be called using the or that can be retrieved by calling target(path) or client().

public void testCalendarResource() {
    Response response = target("/calendar").request().get();
    assertEquals(response.getStatus(), 200);
    Map rootItems = response.readEntity(Map.class);
    Map links = (Map) rootItems.get("_links");

    assertEquals(links.size(), 2);
    assertUri(links, "self", getBaseUri().resolve("calendar").toString());
    assertUri(links, "calendar-types", getBaseUri().resolve("calendar/types").toString());


The EasyJerseyTestCase is built on top of AbstractInjectingJerseyTestCase and adds all the functionality of EasyTestCase. To call the rest endpoint and automatically ready all the mocks the following methods should be used:

  • simpleGet(String url, Class<R> expectedType)

  • simplePost(String url, A argument, Class<R> expectedType)

  • simplePut(String url, A argument)

  • simpleDelete(String url)

public class SearchFilterResourceTest extends EasyJerseyTestCase {
    private DataModel dataModel = setupMock(DataModel.class);
    private SearchFilterLoadingService searchFilterLoadingService = setupMock(SearchFilterLoadingService.class);

    protected List<?> getRestResources() {
        SearchFilterResource searchFilterResource = new SearchFilterResourceImpl(dataModel, searchFilterLoadingService);
        return List.of(searchFilterResource);
    // ...


The datamodel for unit tests should be defined in a java class that extends AbstractDataModel. In a datamodel for a test you usually only add entities and fields that are relevant for your logic / your test. To do so, you define entities, fields and relations.


  • entityModel(modelName) defines an empty EntityModelMock

  • lookupEntityModel(modelName) defines a lookup entity model (Fields: pk, unique_id, label, sorting, active)

  • EntityModelMock follows the builder pattern -> you are able to chain method calls


  • field(fieldName) defines a field (default: not-null string field)

  • standardPk() defines a standard pk field (equal to field("pk").asSerial().key())

  • fields are added to an EntityModelMock by using its with method

  • FieldModelMock follows the builder pattern -> you are able to chain method calls

  • the type of a field can be set using asBool, asInt(), asLong(), asSerial() or asType(type) for all other types

  • if a FieldModelMock needs to be nullable this needs to be explicitly specified with nullable()


  • relations are defined on the “source” EntityModelMock with one of the following functions

  • source.manyToOne(target) n:0..1 / n:1 relation. (default: nullable / n:0..1)

  • source.manyToMany(target) n:n relation

  • RelationModelMock follows the builder pattern -> you are able to chain method calls

  • if a manyToOne relation is not nullable, it must be declared using required()

public class TestDataModel extends AbstractDataModel {
    protected TestDataModel(TypeManager typeManager, L10N l10n) {
        super(typeManager, l10n);

        EntityModelMock user = entityModel("User")
            .with(field("firstname")) // not-null string field
            .with(field("lastname")) // not-null string field
            .with(field("birthdate").asType("date")); // not-null date field

        EntityModelMock userStatus = lookupEntityModel("User_status");

        EntityModelMock test = entityModel("Test")
            .with(field("active").asBool()) // not-null boolean field
            .with(field("int").asInt().nullable()) // nullable int field
            .with(field("long").asLong().nullable()) // nullable long field
            .with(field("serial").asSerial().nullable()); // nullable serial field

        //required manyToOne relation

        //named manyToOne relation
        test.manyToOne("relRecipient", user, "relTest_recipient");
        test.manyToOne("relSender", user, "relTest_sender");

        //manyToMany relation

        commit(); // important, dont forget it

Using files

If a real file (e.g. xml) is required / beneficial in a unit test, the file must be stored in a resources folder next to the java test sources folder. The files need to be in exactly the same folder structure as the java class.


↳ src
- ↳ test
- - ↳ java
- - - ↳ ch
- - - - ↳ tocco
- - - - - ↳ nice2
- - - - - - ↳ optional
- - - - - - - ↳ test
- - - - - - - - ↳ impl
- - - - - - - - - ↳
- - ↳ resources
- - - ↳ ch
- - - - ↳ tocco
- - - - - ↳ nice2
- - - - - - ↳ optional
- - - - - - - ↳ test
- - - - - - - - ↳ impl
- - - - - - - - - ↳ test_file.xml

If these prerequisites are given, the file can be retrieved using getResourceAsStream(uri) as shown in the example below.

public class TestServiceTest extends EasyTestCase<TestService> {
    private BinaryFactory binaryFactory;

    // ...
    public void testListener() throws IOException {
        Binary binary = createBinary("test_file.xml");

        runLogicWithoutReturn(service -> service.processFile(binary));
        // ...

    private Binary createBinary(String uri) throws IOException {
        try (InputStream is = getClass().getResourceAsStream(uri)) {
            return binaryFactory.newBinary(is, uri);
    // ...

Best Practices

Normally works as expected in tests as the FixtureInjectListener sets the timezone to UTC. However if is used in a class variable of the test class, the test will fail on the CI executed after midnight as the timezone is CET (UTC +1) or CEST (UTC +2). To fix it use